Football at Fenway

A variadic function is designed to accept a variable number of arguments.1 In JavaScript, you can make a variadic function by gathering parameters. For example:

const abccc = (a, b, ...c) => {

abccc(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

This can be useful when writing certain kinds of destructuring algorithms. For example, we might want to have a function that builds some kind of team record. It accepts a coach, a captain, and an arbitrary number of players. Easy in ECMAScript 2015:

function team(coach, captain, ...players) {
  console.log(`${captain} (captain)`);
  for (let player of players) {
  console.log(`squad coached by ${coach}`);

team('Luis Enrique', 'Xavi Hernández', 'Marc-André ter Stegen', 'Martín Montoya', 'Gerard Piqué')
    Xavi Hernández (captain)
    Marc-André ter Stegen
    Martín Montoya
    Gerard Piqué
    squad coached by Luis Enrique

But we can’t go the other way around:

function team2(...players, captain, coach) {
  console.log(`${captain} (captain)`);
  for (let player of players) {
  console.log(`squad coached by ${coach}`);
//=> Unexpected token

ECMAScript 2015 only permits gathering parameters from the end of the parameter list. Not the beginning. What to do?

a history lesson

In “Ye Olde Days,”2 JavaScript could not gather parameters, and we had to either do backflips with arguments and .slice, or we wrote ourselves a variadic decorator that could gather arguments into the last declared parameter. Here it is in all of its ECMAScript-5 glory:

var __slice = Array.prototype.slice;

function rightVariadic (fn) {
  if (fn.length < 1) return fn;

  return function () {
    var ordinaryArgs = (1 <= arguments.length ? 
, 0, fn.length - 1) : []),
        restOfTheArgsList =, fn.length - 1),
        args = (fn.length <= arguments.length ?
          ordinaryArgs.concat([restOfTheArgsList]) : []);
    return fn.apply(this, args);

var firstAndButFirst = rightVariadic(function test (first, butFirst) {
  return [first, butFirst]

firstAndButFirst('why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid')
  //=> ["why",["hello","there","little","droid"]]

We don’t need rightVariadic any more, because instead of:

var firstAndButFirst = rightVariadic(
  function test (first, butFirst) {
    return [first, butFirst]

We now simply write:

const firstAndButFirst = (first, ...butFirst) =>
  [first, butFirst];

This is a right-variadic function, meaning that it has one or more fixed arguments, and the rest are gathered into the rightmost argument.

overcoming limitations

It’s nice to have progress. But as noted above, we can’t write:

const butLastAndLast = (...butLast, last) =>
  [butLast, last];

That’s a left-variadic function. All left-variadic functions have one or more fixed arguments, and the rest are gathered into the leftmost argument. JavaScript doesn’t do this. But if we wanted to write left-variadic functions, could we make ourselves a leftVariadic decorator to turn a function with one or more arguments into a left-variadic function?

We sure can, by using the techniques from rightVariadic. Mind you, we can take advantage of modern JavaScript to simplify the code:

const leftVariadic = (fn) => {
  if (fn.length < 1) {
    return fn;
  else {
    return function (...args) {
      const gathered = args.slice(0, args.length - fn.length + 1),
            spread   = args.slice(args.length - fn.length + 1);
      return fn.apply(
        this, [gathered].concat(spread)

const butLastAndLast = leftVariadic((butLast, last) =>
  [butLast, last]);

butLastAndLast('why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid')
  //=> [["why","hello","there","little"],"droid"]

Our leftVariadic function is a decorator that turns any function into a function that gathers parameters from the left, instead of from the right.

left-variadic destructuring

Gathering arguments for functions is one of the ways JavaScript can destructure arrays. Another way is when assigning variables, like this:

const [first, ...butFirst] = ['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid'];

  //=> 'why'
  //=> ["hello","there","little","droid"]

As with parameters, we can’t gather values from the left when destructuring an array:

const [...butLast, last] = ['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid'];
  //=> Unexpected token

We could use leftVariadic the hard way:

const [butLast, last] = leftVariadic((butLast, last) =>
  [butLast, last])(...['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid']);

  //=> ['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little']

  //=> 'droid'

But we can write our own left-gathering function utility using the same principles without all the tedium:

const leftGather = (outputArrayLength) => {
  return function (inputArray) {
    const gathered = inputArray.slice(0, inputArray.length - outputArrayLength + 1),
          spread = inputArray.slice(inputArray.length - outputArrayLength + 1);
    return [gathered].concat(spread);

const [butLast, last] = leftGather(2)(['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little', 'droid']);
  //=> ['why', 'hello', 'there', 'little']

  //=> 'droid'

With leftGather, we have to supply the length of the array we wish to use as the result, and it gathers excess arguments into it from the left, just like leftVariadic gathers excess parameters for a function.


ECMAScript 2015 makes it easy to gather parameters or array elements from the right. If we want to gather them from the left, we can roll our own left-variadic decorator for functions, or left-gatherer for destructuring arrays.

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This post was extracted from a draft of the book, JavaScript Allongé, The “Six” Edition. The extracts so far:

  1. English is about as inconsistent as JavaScript: Functions with a fixed number of arguments can be unary, binary, ternary, and so forth. But can they be “variary?” No! They have to be “variadic.”

  2. Another history lesson. “Ye” in “Ye Olde,” was not actually spelled with a “Y” in days of old, it was spelled with a thorn, and is pronounced “the.” Another word, “Ye” in “Ye of little programming faith,” is pronounced “ye,” but it’s a different word altogether.