There are many definitions of “elegance,” but with respect to programming, I like to define it as, “The degree to which a set of features scale.” The more things you can do with a few features, the better.

One of the easiest way to make a set of features scale is to make them composeable in as many ways as possible. If you have features A, B, and C, and they don’t compose, You can do three things. If they also compose in some binary way, you could have as many as nine: A, B, C, AB, BA, AC, CA, BC, and CB.

To be elegant, you want things to be composeable, and you ideally want them to compose in a natural, simple way. When designing feature “A,” you shouldn’t have to write special case code for composing A with B and A with C. What happens when you add “D?” Are you supposed to go back and retroactively change A, B, and C to compose with D?

Audrey Hepburn


Special case code is often a sign of inelegance, a smell that the model is not right. I’ve written a lot of inelegant code. For example, I was recently working with adding some functional idioms to JavaScript.

(Although these examples are in JavaScript, I don’t think the concept of inelegance is JavaScript-specific.)

At some point, I wrote a curry function. To refresh your memory, currying creates a chain of functions that take on parameter each. For example, here is a function that curries a binary function:

function curry2 (f) {
  return function (first) {
    return function (last) {
      return f(first, last);

I also wrote a flip function that takes any function and reverses its arguments. For example, here is a function that flips any binary function:

function flip2 (f) {
  return function (first, last) {
    return f(last, first);

The two functions compose: You can write curry2(flip2(f)). So far, things are minimal and elegant. Of course, not all functions are binary. How do we write a generalized flip or curry function, one that handles arbitrarily polyadic functions?

JavaScript functions are also objects with properties. One of them, .length, is the number of arguments declared. So:

function () {}.length
  //=> 0
function (x) {}.length
  //=> 1
function (x, y) {}.length
  //=> 2
function (x, y, z) {}.length
  //=> 3

Thus, we can discover the declared arity of a function with .length. We can also access the number of actual arguments and their values, regardless of arity, with a special variable called arguments. For example:

(function () {
  return '' + arguments.length + '-' + arguments[1];
})('a', 'b', 'c');
  //=> "3-b"

arguments isn’t actually an array, so if you want to convert it to an array, you need to use some legerdemain:

function toArray(args) {
  return [], 0);

Putting all this together, I came up with this implementation of flip:

function flip (f) {
  return function () {
    return f.apply(this, toArray(arguments).reverse())

function echo (a, b, c, d) {
  return [a, b, c, d];

echo(1, 2, 3, 4);
  //=> [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]
flip(echo)(1, 2, 3, 4)
  //=> [ 4, 3, 2, 1 ]

Emboldened, I wrote a polyadic version of curry with these tools:

function curry (f) {
  var collectedArgs = [];
  if (f.length < 2) {
    return f;
  else return (function getmoreargs (remaining) {
    return function (arg) {
      if (remaining === 1) {
        return f.apply(this, collectedArgs);
      else return getmoreargs(remaining - 1);

  //=> [Function]
  //=> [Function]
  //=> [Function]
  //=> [Function]
  //=> [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]

Great! Now for the “elegance” test:

  //=> TypeError: object is not a function

The problem is that curry inspects its function to work out how many arguments are expected. But flip breaks the implied contract by returning a function that doesn’t declare any arguments:

  //=> 4
  //=> 0

Bzzt! Naturally, I wrote a special wrapper to “do the right thing.” Leaving out some performance caching, it looks like this:

function arity (numberOfArgs, fun) {
  if (fun.length === numberOfArgs) return fun;
  var parameters = new Array(numberOfArgs);
  for (var i = 0; i < numberOfArgs; ++i) {
    parameters[i] = "__" + i;
  var pstr = parameters.join();
  var code = "return function ("+pstr+") { return fun.apply(this, arguments); };";
  return (new Function(['fun'], code))(fun);

This grisly bit of code actually parses some code at runtime to “wrap” any function in the correct number of arguments. Here it is in action:

function flip (f) {
  return arity(f.length, function () {
    return f.apply(this, toArray(arguments).reverse())

And now:

  //=> [4, 3, 2, 1]

Which is nice, and might less inelegant than not being able to compose curry with flip.

I could also have used some other special case mechanism like storing the original length of a function in a special property when reversing a function, but it felt less inelegant to cut with JavaScript’s grain and respect the way it handles function arity “natively.”

This inelegance problem crops up even more when working with large frameworks: Features interact in ways that expose edge cases. It’s vital to make code as composeable as possible and thus as elegant as possible, but sooner or later you may find yourself holding your nose and trying to find the minimum level of inelegance.

And it may well be that the least inelegant thing to do is simply declare that certain elements don’t compose at all. Maybe that’s what should have happened here. Maybe currying flipped functions should simply be banned.

What do you think?